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Ministry proposes 54% increase in distribution of key biofuel next year

The Jakarta Post | Rabu, 9 Oktober 2019

Ministry proposes 54% increase in distribution of key biofuel next year

The Energy and Mineral Resources Ministry aims to distribute next year around 9.6 million kiloliters of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME), a critical ingredient for biofuel, a ministry official has said. “The target has been approved by [the ministry’s acting oil and gas director] Djoko Siswanto but not yet by the minister,” bioenergy director ‎Andriah Feby Misna told reporters in Jakarta on Monday. The proposed amount, pending the minister’s approval, represents a 54.8 percent increase from this year’s distribution target of 6.2 million kl. The higher FAME distribution target aligns with the government’s plan to implement a 30-percent blended biodiesel ( B30 ) policy starting in January of next year, after having implemented the preceding B20 policy this year. Feby added that FAME absorption was 4.5 million kl as of September, good enough for 68 percent of this year’s target.
https://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2019/10/09/ministry-proposes-54-increase-in-distribution-of-key-biofuel-next-year.html

Warta Ekonomi | Rabu, 9 Oktober 2019
Membandingkan B20 Indonesia dengan B10 Malaysia
Saat ini, komoditas kelapa sawit Indonesia baik di sektor hulu maupun hilir sedang dihadapkan pada hambatan dagang dari negara importir seperti Uni Eropa dengan black campaign-nya, India dengan perubahan tarif masuk untuk CPO dan produk turunannya, serta perang dagang Amerika Serikat-China yang mengakibatkan lemahnya perekonomian dunia. Defisit neraca perdagangan Indonesia juga semakin memerah karena defisit migas dan non-migas yang kian melebar. Salah satunya, ketidakstabilan harga minyak sawit mentah (CPO) di pasar global serta volume ekspor yang kian tertekan. Kondisi ini semakin kompleks sebagai dampak dari ketergantungan Indonesia terhadap pasar ekspor untuk minyak kelapa sawit. Data yang dihimpun Bloomberg mencatat Indonesia sudah menyalurkan 4,49 juta kiloliter biodiesel di dalam negeri pada kuartal I-III 2019, yang mana jumlah ini 120% lebih tinggi dibandingkan periode yang sama di tahun 2018. Penerapan kebijakan B20 (20% biodiesel + 80% solar) selama tahun 2019 dinilai sudah membawa hasil yang signifikan terhadap ekonomi Indonesia.
Harga Indeks Pasar (HIP) pada September 2019 untuk bahan bakar nabati jenis biodiesel dijual seharga Rp6.929/liter. Pemanfaatan B20 di Indonesia meliputi sektor public service obligation (PSO) seperti transportasi publik dan kereta api serta non-PSO seperti pembangkit listrik tenaga diesel, alat berat, dan otomotif. Keberhasilan yang dicapai dengan diterapkannya kebijakan B20 ini yakni terjadi penghematan sebesar US$1,66 miliar hingga akhir kuartal III-2019. Sebagai eksportir dan produsen CPO terbesar kedua di dunia, Malaysia pun mengikuti Indonesia dalam menerapkan kebijakan campuran solar dan biodiesel 10% (B10) yang mana sebelumnya, Malaysia sudah menerapkan B5 dan B7. Malaysia juga menggunakan B10 ini pada sektor transportasi publik dan industri. Alokasi yang disiapkan untuk B10 selama 2019 ini sekitar 820 juta liter dengan ekspektasi penghematan yang diperoleh sekitar US$570 juta. Nyatanya, kebijakan ini sudah membantu saving bagi kedua negara terhadap penggunaan bahan bakar fosil. Per Januari 2020, kebijakan B30 dan B20 akan diterapkan oleh Indonesia dan Malaysia. Sementara ini, B30 dan B20 masih dalam tahap finalisasi uji coba terhadap transportasi publik di masing-masing negara. Mandatori ini akan tetap terus dikembangkan oleh raksasa kelapa sawit dunia agar popularitas CPO dan pasar domestik semakin kuat. Selain itu, produktivitas dan stok minyak sawit dalam negeri juga dapat terkontrol dengan baik.
https://www.wartaekonomi.co.id/read250772/membandingkan-b20-indonesia-dengan-b10-malaysia.html

Bisnis | Rabu, 9 Oktober 2019
Pertamina Tetap Garap Green Refinery Bareng Eni
PT Pertamina (Persero) tetap akan mengembangkan kilang hijau atau green refinery bersama Eni SpA di Plaju, kendati membuka peluang kerja sama dengan perusahaan migas lain. Direktur Utama Pertamina Nicke Widyawati menyatakan pihaknya tetap membuka peluang bermitra dengan perusahaan migas lain. Hal ini tidak akan mengganggu kerja sama dengan Eni. Saat ini, kerja sama dengan Eni masih berkutat pada finalisasi tahap desain. “Kalau ada teknologi lain, ya kami [buka kerja sama], karena Pertamina bikinnya kan bukan cuma satu, nanti kan harus ada di Indonesia bagian barat, tengah dan timur. Jadi kami terbuka,” tuturnya, Rabu (9/10/2019). Nicke mengatakan teknologi yang dimiliki Eni, dipastikan akan menggunakan untuk pengembangan green refinery di Plaju. Bersama dengan Eni, imbuhnya, Pertamina telah menandatangani kerja sama penjajakan bisnis hilir minyak mencakup potensi mengembangkan kilang hijau dan peluang perdagangan minyak dan produk lainnya pada September 2018. Penjajakan kerja sama bisnis hilir migas, ditindaklanjuti dengan kesepakatan pengembangan Green Refinery, yaitu Head of Joint Venture Agreement untuk pengembangan kilang hijau di Plaju serta Term Sheet CPO processing di Italia. “Sudah [pasti dengan Eni] untuk Indonesia bagian barat,” tambah Nicke.
Sebelumnya, Wakil Menteri Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral (ESDM) Arcandra Tahar mengatakan pengerjaan kilang hijau kerja sama dengan Eni SpA belum masuk tahap pembangunan fisik. Menurutnya, Pertamina dan Eni masih membahas persyaratan-persyaratan yang dibutuhkan agar proyek ini bisa bergulir. “Ada beberapa persyaratan dari sisi teknologi, termasuk sertifikasi dari [penggunaan] minyak sawit. Ini masih sedang berlangsung pembicaraan teknologi dan persyaratan lainnya,” katanya. Rencana pengembangan kilang hijau atau green refinery hasil kerja sama dengan Eni ini juga akan menggunakan teknologi Hydrotreating Refinery, sama yang berhasil dibangun Eni di Porto Maghera, Italia. Nantinya, green diesel dihasilkan kilang ini berasal dari hidrogen murni, yakni hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO), bukan methanol yang biasa digunakan untuk memproduksi biodiesel. Green diesel ini memiliki komposisi hydrocarburic penuh dan kandungan energi yang sangat tinggi.
Arcandra mengatakan syarat lisensi penggunaan CPO sebagai bahan baku, juga diterapkan di sektor lain. Hanya saja, syarat lisensi ini diajukan dari Eni untuk dipenuhi oleh Pertamina. Adapun, proyek dengan Eni ini merupakan unit kilang baru. Salah satu opsi proyek yang layak (feasible option) yakni kilang hijau yang mampu mengolah CPO 20.000 barel per hari (bph) dan menghasilkan solar hijau (green diesel) 17.800 bph. Perkiraan investasi untuk opsi ini yakni US$616 juta untuk fasilitas ISBL, palm oil treatment, steam reformer, utilities, tangki, dan lainnya.
https://ekonomi.bisnis.com/read/20191009/44/1157271/pertamina-tetap-garap-green-refinery-bareng-eni

Bisnis | Rabu, 9 Oktober 2019
Kadin Sumut Dorong Ekspor CPO ke Afrika
Kamar Dagang dan Industri Sumatra Utara (Sumut) membuka peluang investasi bagi pengusaha-pengusaha kelapa sawit Sumut untuk memasuki pasar di kawasan Afrika. Hal itu mengingat kawasan Afrika, khususnya kawasan Afrika Timur memiliki pangsa pasar yang potensial. Apalagi, Wakil Ketua Umum Kadin Sumut Bidang Investasi dan Promosi Jonner Napitupulu mengatakan, Indonesia menjadi negara eksporir minyak kelapa sawit terbesar dengan pangsa pasar sebesar 54,19%, diikuti Malaysia sebesar 29,27%. Sementara itu, lanjutnya, untuk negara importir kelapa sawit atau CPO dengan pangsa pasar terbesar yakni India sebesar 19,96%, Tiongkok 10,31%, dan Pakistan sebesar 6,18%. “Dalam lima tahun terakhir, ekspor CPO Sumut mengalami tren penurunan,” katanya dikutip Rabu(9/10/2019). Badan Pusat Statistik (BPS) Sumatra Utara mencatat pada periode Januari- Agustus 2019, penurunan ekspor terbesar terjadi pada komoditas lemak dan minyak hewan/nabati, yakni turun sebesar 19,52% dengan nilai US$445,82 juta. Dia mengatakan menurunnya angka ekspor CPO disebabkan adanya pelemahan permintaan di negara tujuan utama. Hal tersebut disebabkan oleh sejumlah isu seperti tingginya biaya masuk ke India, khususnya untuk industri pengolahan. Selain itu, adanya penghapusan kebijakan biodiesel berbasis pangan di pasar Eropa, sertanya tingginya persediaan produk minyak nabati lain seperti minyak biji bunga matahari. Untuk itu, pengusaha kelapa sawit perlu mencari pangsa pasar baru selain di negara tujuan utama seperti India dan Tiongkok. Jonner mengatakan kelapa Sawit memiliki potensi pasar yang cukup besar di Ethiopia. Ekspansi luar negeri diperlukan untuk mengembngkan kemampuan, menggali dan memperluas jaringan bisnis yang saling menguntungkan. “Tingginya permintaan minyak kelapa sawit mentah atau CPO lantaran 40% produk makanan seperti di Ethiopia menggunakan CPO,” katanya.
https://sumatra.bisnis.com/read/20191009/534/1157277/kadin-sumut-dorong-ekspor-cpo-ke-afrika

The Jakarta Post | Kamis, 10 Oktober 2019
Trade rules to be weapon to fight climate change
Idea to unleash policy on climate change in Europe may be too politically controversial to work. The European Union is poised to bring trade policy into the fight against climate change, a move that risks stoking global commercial tensions. European Commission President-elect Ursula von der Leyen wants to craft a carbon border tariff for the EU, the world\’s biggest single market, as part of a Green Deal to battle the more frequent heat waves, storms and floods tied to global warming. The idea would unleash a major policy weapon that may well be too politically controversial to work. Even so, elevating the issue is likely to trigger a broader debate within the EU about how to protect domestic businesses from lower-cost competitors abroad. The bloc is weighing steps to zero out fossil fuel emissions by 2050 and wants to prod the rest of the world into similar actions to avoid heavy industry moving abroad. Frans Timmermans, the designated EU climate czar who will take office on Nov. 1, said the EU should analyze introducing a carbon border tax. The goal would be to prevent European energy-intensive manufacturers such as steelmakers and oil refiners from relocating to countries outside the EU without emission curbs and spur green ambitions by other countries. “With the Green Deal, Europe can lead by example,” Timmermans told a European Parliament confirmation hearing in Brussels on Tuesday.” But we should also be prepared to consider other instruments, for instance a carbon border tax, to level the playing field for European products if other countries do not go far as us.”
Europe aims to lead the fight against global warming, working with China to leave the United States politically isolated on the issue. Policymakers across Europe are upset US President Donald Trump turned his back on the landmark 2015 Paris Agreement on climate change. They also want to harness economic benefits from a clean-energy revolution thatwould touch everything from transportation and agriculture to energy production and the design of cities. The idea of an EU carbon border touches on two policy areas where the bloc has very different track records. Timmermans\’ study of the matter shows the delicacy and difficulty of levying such a tax while complying with World Trade Organization standards designed to smooth the flow of goods and services across borders. The EU generally speaks with a single voice on trade, and the daily management of European commercial policy is in the hands of the commission, the bloc\’s executive arm. By contrast, tax matters generally remain a closely guarded responsibility of EU national governments, so any bloc-wide initiative in this field requires their unanimous approval. The EU has a history of failed initiatives in the area of taxation, including much-touted 2011 proposals to establish a financial-transactions tax and to introduce an emissions-levy on industries excluded from the bloc\’s carbon-dioxide caps.
The notion of a European carbon border tax faces a sizable hurdle posed by the EU\’s unanimity rule on fiscal matters. Some of the bloc\’s governments are also genuinely concerned about whether such a measure would be compatible with WTO rules, which the EU is keen to support in the face of Trump\’s protectionist challenge to the global commercial order. “Carbon border taxes have their merits, but are tough to sell politically,” said Antoine Vagneur-Jones, an analyst at BloombergNEF in London. “Implementing new border tariffs could exacerbate protectionism and trade wars.” France has been leading the calls for such a European initiative, and von der Leyen owes her surprise nomination in July to fill the EU’s most powerful post in large part to French President Emmanuel Macron. That helps explain the prominence she has given to the idea. Timmermans, who will be responsible for crafting the proposal, has so far given little away on the details. Von der Leyen pledged ensuring compatibility with global open-market rules. “As an economic giant, we have tremendous leverage in our trade relations,” said Timmermans. “We can set global standards. We should use that leverage as best we can, combined with convincing arguments to show that at the end of the day, we can all be better off.” With global supply chains crossing multiple countries, designing a European carbon tariff will be nothing if not technically complex. “Carbon taxes on imports are a significant risk,” said Deirdre Cooper, who helps oversee clean investments at Investec Pic\’s as- set management division. She says the measure would encourage share and bond investors to focus not only on a company\’s direct emissions, but the greenhouse gas ifs indirectly responsible for.
Politically, the push risks opening a new source of international trade tensions, with Trump threatening to hit European automotive goods to retaliate against support for Airbus SE. Among the unknowns are the industries and products that would be covered by the upcoming commission proposal. Von der Leyen said in July that “it will start with a number of selected sectors and be gradually extended”. Timmermans said the commission would need to take into account the relationship with the EU’s existing carbon-leakage measures, which include handing free permits to emit carbon dioxide to mostly energy-intensive companies deemed at risk of moving their production out of Europe. After a surge in the cost of CO2-permit prices in the EU cap-and-trade market over the past few years, replacing free allowances in the market with a carbon tariff may discourage businesses currently rallying behind the tax. EU national governments are signaling a readiness to consider the issue. “We’re open to discussing the issue, but we see a lot of challenges related to any of such proposals,” said Karsten Sach, director general at the German Environment Ministry. “There are likely other options which are probably more effective and more in line with what a rules-based international trade system would look like.”
Such attitudes may well lead the EU down a path involving a less intrusive stick: setting minimum environmental standards for goods both made in the bloc and imported by it. Europe has deployed this approach in the area of renewable energy, setting sustainability criteria for biofuels including those made from palm oil in countries such as Indonesia in a bid to curb deforestation. While subtler, this European method has plenty of political and economic impact. The Indonesian government has threatened to retaliate against the EU over its stricter limits on the use of palm oil in biofuels. “Europe as the economic superpower needs to investigate and analyze all options,” said Norbert Kurilla, state secretary at the Slovak Environment Ministry.